The course on History of Architecture develops appreciation regarding past and current trends in the field of architecture. The knowledge of this course will help the students to understand how political, physical, social, economical and technological change affect the architecture, materials and construction techniques. The course covers broad topics like: pre-historic architecture, important civilizations, (Indian, Egyptian, Greek and Roman), medieval architecture in Europe, and temple architecture and Budhish architecture in India.
The teacher should try to create interest among the students for this course by organizing site visits to the local old monuments. Audio-visual aids should also be used to explain various architectural developments. While imparting instructions, teacher should stress upon the context of form and space, construction methods structural systems and materials. The teacher should motivate the students to take general reference for form, drawings structural solutions and materials from the history, while designing their project.
1. Pre Historical Architecture and Introduction to History of Architecture (6 Hrs)
1.1 Importance of history to understand the Architecture.
1.2 Examples of Early shelters, Stone Age, Tumuli, etc. as expression of man’s physical and spiritual needs.
1.3 Determinants of built form – geo physical, societal, technological etc. (Early caves, timber huts, stone houses etc).
2. Western Civilization (8 Hrs)
2.1 Egyptian Civilization Concept of the Royal Necropolis, locational context and architectural characteristics of public buildings, e.g. Mastabas (master of sakara) pyramids and temples (rock – cut and structural) – one example of each type to be chosen.
2.2 Mesopotamian Civilization the urban context and architecture of public buildings (Ziggurats and palaces) – one example of each.
3. Greek Civilization (8 hrs)
3.1 Greek towns, location and characteristics of typical civic spaces such as Agora, Acropolis, Theatres etc.
3.2 Significant characteristics of Greek Architecture such as Materials, construction systems, system of proportioning, Greek orders, architecture of Greek temples – Parthenon, Athens.
4. Roman Civilization (8 hrs)
4.1 Significant characteristics of Roman Architecture. Concept of monumentality, materials and construction systems, Roman orders.
4.2 Building analysis – Colosseum, Thermal, Basilicas, Pantheon Rome, The Roman villa – their form, scale and constructional/structural systems.
5. Indian Civilization (10 Hrs)
5.1 Indus Valley Civilization: Form of the Harappan city, location and role of public buildings.
5.2 Architecture of the typical Harappan dwelling, Great Granary and Great Bath.
5.3 The Vedic Village, building typology and construction.
6. Buddhist Architecture in India (8 Hrs)
6.1 Buddhist settlements in India, factors in selection of sites of Buddhist architecture.
6.2 Building typology – stupas, Chaityas and Viharas – suitable examples from each; geographical context to illustrate differences in form, construction methods and ornamentation.
Note: While imparting instructions wherever possible, in this subject, the teachers should organize site visits to the old monuments and buildings with extra-ordinary architectural features. Experts/Guides should be invited to deliver lectures on the relevant themes in order to generate interest in the students. Audio-visual materials available on the subject, in the country and abroad, be procured and presented to the students from time to time to enrich the quality of classroom instructions. Special architectural features of some old/ historical famous Indian and International buildings may be presented to the students as case studies. Students may be encouraged to prepare case studies of at least one famous old/historical building. The teachers and students may visit web sites, relevant to the history of architecture.
While imparting instructions in this subject, the teachers should organize site visits to the old monuments and buildings with extra-ordinary architectural features. Experts/Guides from state and national Archaeology departments may be invited to deliver lectures on the relevant themes in order to generate interest in the students. Audio-visual material available on the subject, in the country and abroad, may be procured and presented to the students from time to time to enrich the quality of classroom institutions. Special architectural features of some old/historical famous Indian and International buildings may be presented to the students as case studies. Students may be encouraged to prepare case studies of at least one famous old/historical building. Web sites, relevant to the history of architecture may be visited by the teachers and students.